As the transformation of the energy system to renewable energies, increased sector coupling and electrification progresses, grid infrastructures are also subject to change. The operators of electricity and gas networks must prepare themselves for this.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is on the way to enable a global gas market with growing consumption and trade during 2018. The largest regional market for the LNG is Asia, especially Japan, China and South Korea. Increasingly, Europe also seeks to diversify its gas supply and LNG import terminals are being upgraded or constructed. This article covers the most important developments and trends in today´s LNG markets.
Both the negotiations on the German coalition agreement and the prices on commodity exchanges were very volatile in February 2018. PPAs are becoming increasingly attractive and the results of the tenders for renewable energies speak for themselves.
Since the beginning of August 2017 the prices on the electricity and commodity markets have been breaking one record after the other. Is it eventually time to pop the corks and finally ring in the end of the lean times? Or is it barely a temporary anomaly? To find an answer, we investigate the causes of the current price development.
Natural gas can either be transported grid-bound via pipelines or liquefied as LNG. In order to increase the energy density, the gas is transported through the pipelines under high pressure (around 80 bar).
For a long time natural gas has exclusively been a grid-bound energy carrier. In consequence, markets for natural were not globalized, but there were several submarkets (see Tutorial 1) which supplied themselves. Furthermore, the price level in the various markets varied as no arbitrage between the markets was possible.
After giving you an overview of where natural gas is produced and the regions, which are most important for the European natural gas market, the following will provide you an overview of the gas consumption and on which factors it depends on.
Natural Gas is currently the third most important primary energy carrier in the world (after oil and coal). The main advantages of natural gas in comparison to coal or oil are the high efficiency levels that can be achieved when generating electricity from natural gas. As with oil, the global reserves of natural gas are concentrated in a few countries around the world.